The Biggest Mistake made by Investors

Financial Gain

Loss aversion and herd mentality are two common psychological biases that can significantly impact investment decisions. It is not uncommon for investors to experience the negative effects of these biases when evaluating investment opportunities.

In this article, we will delve deeper into loss aversion and herd mentality, examining how they can detrimentally affect the quality of our decision-making processes.

Loss aversion

In the world of investing, there is one psychological concept that has a significant impact on the decisions investors make: loss aversion. Put simply, loss aversion is the tendency for people to feel the pain of losses more acutely than the pleasure of gains. In other words, people would rather avoid losses than achieve gains of an equal amount.

The concept of loss aversion was first introduced by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1979. They conducted a series of experiments that showed that people feel twice as bad about losing money as they feel good about gaining the same amount of money. This means that an investor who loses £100,000 will feel twice as bad as they would feel good if they gained £100,000.


The effect of loss aversion on investing is significant. When investors make decisions, they tend to be more influenced by the possibility of losing money than by the possibility of gaining money. This can lead to irrational decisions, such as holding onto a losing stock for too long, in the hope that it will eventually recover.

Loss aversion can also cause investors to be overly cautious. When faced with the possibility of a loss, some investors may choose to avoid risk altogether, even if the potential gains outweigh the potential losses. This can result in missed investment opportunities and lower returns on investments.


One way to mitigate the effect of loss aversion is to focus on the long-term. By taking a long-term approach to investing, investors can avoid making decisions based solely on short-term gains or losses. This can help investors make more rational decisions and avoid the emotional swings that come with short-term volatility.

Another way to address loss aversion is to diversify investments. By diversifying their portfolio, investors can spread their risk across different asset classes, reducing the impact of any single loss.

Herd mentality

Herd mentality is a common phenomenon in investing and financial decision-making, often fuelled by a lack of understanding about investment strategies. Many investors are unaware of the intricacies of investing, which makes them susceptible to following the crowd. The tulip mania is a classic example of herd mentality, where investors jumped on the bandwagon without fully comprehending the risks associated with tulip bulb investments.

The Tulip Mania

This took place in the Netherlands in the 1630s and is a classic example of herd mentality in investing. At the time, tulips were a highly coveted luxury item, and their bulbs became a speculative asset that was traded on the open market. As more and more people began to invest in tulip bulbs, the price of these bulbs skyrocketed to astronomical levels.

The mania reached its peak in February 1637, when the price of tulip bulbs collapsed. Many investors who had bought into the tulip market at the height of the bubble were left with worthless bulbs, having paid exorbitant prices based solely on the speculation and hype surrounding them.

Nearly four centuries after the tulip mania, trading tulip futures may seem absurd. However, before dismissing this historical event as a folly, we can draw parallels to modern times. Two such instances that come to mind are the dotcom bubble at the end of the 20th century and the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008, both of which were equally absurd in their own ways. Sceptics of the cryptocurrency boom have also expressed concerns that it may be another instance of a similar phenomenon, where investors are driven by hype and speculation.

Investment decisions in modern times are often driven by emotions as much as by logic, if not more. Many of us witness our peers pouring their money into seemingly lucrative investments that are bound to yield significant returns and make us wealthy. When that happens, most people tend to follow suit, succumbing to the waves of enthusiasm and hype. Only a handful of individuals put in the time and effort to conduct thorough research before investing. 


Loss aversion and herd mentality are two powerful psychological biases that can significantly impact investment decisions. Loss aversion can lead investors to make irrational decisions based on their fear of losses, while herd mentality can cause investors to follow the crowd without fully understanding the risks involved. Recognising and addressing these biases is crucial for making sound investment decisions. By adopting a long-term perspective, diversifying investments, and conducting thorough research, investors can mitigate the negative effects of these psychological pitfalls and improve their chances of success in the market. It is important to remember that investing should be driven by careful analysis and rational thinking rather than emotional impulses or following the crowd.

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